THE ENERGY IN THE INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS
The energy efficiency in the industry is very important from the point of view of international competition power. In order to enhance the energy efficiency in the industry, researches are made in the fields such as; energy accounting, control systems, insulation, new technologies and industrial processes, raw material properties, product varieties and specifications, climatic conditions and environmental effects, capacity utilizations.
Furthermore, application and evaluation works to influence the electricity consumption in quantity and time aspects are underway. These works are named as demand management. Any one or several of the demand management works, that are carried out in three methods, could be applied jointly. The technical precautions that is one of the methods; include the fields like, high efficiency providing illumination, high efficiency motors, cooling systems, building insulation. Second method is the provision of the information and the lack of information of the consumers is eliminated by the prepared technical documents. Provision of information includes the subjects like; directing the works related to the reduction of the demand for energy in the centers of energy efficiency, to advise, to organize educational courses and seminars and the promotional works to encourage the utilization of equipment that consume the energy efficiently. The third and the most applied method is, to make different tariffs, to change the consumption structure and to price according to the time of utilization or the quantity of utilization (Ergen and Yildirim, 1997:28).
The precautions to be taken in the industry sector are as follows:
- Changing of the fluorescent and mercury vapor bulbs to high pressure sodium bulbs, in the process illumination.
- Adjust the climatization units in the sections of low personnel activity, in the night shift working establishments.
- When not required, shut off exhaust fans, furnaces, motors etc.
- Provide the compressor air inlets from the colder areas instead of hot equipment chambers.
- The enhancement of the efficiency and paybacks are interesting.
- The steam and compressed air leaks are very costly for the establishment. These must be determined by regular audits.
- The careful monitoring of the excess air coefficient which is the heart of the combustion air, provides considerable energy savings.
- Big savings can be achieved by improvement of the power factor according to the establishment tariff structure and power factor.
- Considerable savings can be obtained by the insulation of the process lines and the tanks.
- Especially when it is the case for new applications, utilization of energy efficient motors, amortizes itself in a short period of time.
- In case the pressures had been designed redundantly, reduction of the pressure will not heat the process and great savings are in the picture.
- In general the industrial installations are insufficiently insulated. Proper insulation means big savings.
- In large compressors the heat discarded by air and water cooling, can be used in space heatings especially in winters, by suitable designs.
- The plastic stripes, door buffers and air curtains help blocking the infiltration from the large entry doors.
- The economizers provide optimum utilization of the outside air. The savings from their utilizations are great.
- The payback from the radiant heaters utilized for the partial heating, instead of heating the whole spaces is attractive.
- The closure of the heated open spaces leads to big energy savings.
- The little modifications to be made in the timings of the equipment, reduces the demand loads considerably.
- Spot climatization reduces the required climatized air quantity.